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Secondary Sources
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Secondary Sources

The following sources are organized by time period. Whenver possible, a copy of the source itself will be made available in electronic format. When an electronic copy of the source is not available, information on how to find or obtain the source will be provided.


  • van der Leeuw, Charles Azerbaijan: A Quest for Identity, Palgrave Macmillan (2000). Order On Amazon.

Sources by Period:

  • Pre-Islamic Era
    • Median Period 728 BC – 550 BC
    • Achaemenid Period 550 BC – 330 BC
    • Selucid Period 306 BC – 150 BC
    • Roman Period
    • Parthian Period
  • Christian Era
    • Sassanid Period 224 AD – 642 AD
  • Islamic Era 667 AD (conquest of Azerbaijan)
    • Arab & Kurdish Period 667 AD -
      • Brook, Kevin Alan The Jews of Khazaria Jason Aronson, 2002. Order on Amazon.
    • Turkic & Mongol Period 1030 AD - 1501 AD
      • Amitai-Preiss, Reuven Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, 1260-1281, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
      • Amitai-Preiss, Rueven and Morgan, D. O. Editors The Mongol Empire and its Legacy, Boston: Brill, 1999.
      • Barthold, Vasiliy Vladomirovich Turkestan Down to the Mongol Invasion, London: Luzac & Co., 1968.
      • Barthold, Vasiliy Vladomirovich An Historical Geography of Iran, Translated by Svat Soucek. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.
      • Boyle, J. A. “Dynastic and Political History of the Il-Khans.” In The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol 5, ed. J. A. Boyle, 303-421. Cambridge: At the University Press, 1968.
      • Cahen, C. “The Mongols and the Near East.” In A History of the Crusades, Vol. 2, ed. Setton, K. M., 715-32. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969.
      • Cahen, C. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rum: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century, NY: Longman, 2001.
      • Fähnrich, Heinz Geschichte Georgiens von den Anfängen bis zur Mongolenherrschaft, Aachen: Verlag Shaker, 1993.
      • Fraser, James B. Narrative of a Journey into Khorasan in the Years 1821 and 1822. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.
      • Howorth, H. History of the Mongols. Vol. 3: The Mongols of Persia. New York: Burt Franklin, 1888.
      • May, Timothy “Chormaqan and the Mongol Conquest of the Middle East.” Military History, April, 2004. Online Extras: http://www.thehistorynet.com/mh/blchormaquan/.
      • May, Timothy “Chormaqan Noyan, the First Mongol Governor of the Middle East.” (Master’s Thesis for the Department of Central Eurasian Studies, Indiana University), http://radar.ngcsu.edu/~tmmay/Chormaqan_thesis.pdf.
      • Minorsky, V. “Caucasica in the History of Mayyafariqin.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 13, no. 1 (1949): 27-35.
      • Minorsky, V. “Caucasica II.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 13, no. 4 (1951): 868-877.
      • Minorsky, V. “Caucasica III: The Alan Capital *Magas and the Mongol Campaigns.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 14, no. 2 (1952): 221-238.
      • Morgan, D. O. “The Mongol Armies in Persia.” Der Islam LVI, no. 1 (1979): 81-96.
      • Morgan, D. O. “The Mongols in Syria, 1260-1300.” In Crusade and Settlement, ed. Edbury, P.W., 231-5. Cardiff: University College Cardiff Press, 1985.
    • Safavid Period 1501 AD – 1736 AD
    • Khanate Period  1736 AD - 1796 AD
    • Qajar Period 1796 – 1813
  • Modern Era
      • Swietochowski, Tadeusz Russia and A Borderland in Transition: Azerbaijan, Columbia University Press (1995). Order on Amazon.
      • Atabaki, Touraj Azerbaijan: Ethnicity and the Struggle for Power in Iran, I. B. Tauris; Rev edition (2000). Order on Amazon.
    • Czarist Russian Period 1813 - 1917
      • John F. Baddeley, The Russian conquest of the Caucasus London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1908. Order On Amazon.
      • Mostashari, Firouzeh On the Religious Frontier: Tsarist Russia and Islam in the Caucasus, (International Library of Historical Studies) I. B. Tauris (2006). Order on Amazon.
    • 1st Republic Period 1917 - 1919
      • Swietochowski, Tadeusz Russian Azerbaijan, 1905-1920: the Shaping of a National Identity in a Muslim Community, Cambridge University Press; New Ed edition (2004). Order on Amazon.
    • Soviet Period 1919 -1990
      • Altstadt, Audrey L. The Azerbaijani Turks: Power and Identity Under Russian Rule, Hoover Institution Press (1992). Order on Amazon.
      • Hasanli, Jamil At the Dawn of the Cold War: The Soviet-American Crisis over Iranian Azerbaijan, 1941-1946, (Harvard Cold War Studies Book) Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. (2006). Order on Amazon.
      • Hasanli, Jamil "Iranian Azerbaijan: The Epicenter of the Cold War." The Caucasus and Globalization. Vol 2 Issue 1 (2008) 6-19.
      • Hasanli, Jamil "Iranian Azerbaijan: The Epicenter of the Cold War, Part II." The Caucasus and Globalization. Vol 2 Issue 2 (2008) 6-14.
      • Hasanli, Jamil "The Republic of Azerbaijan in International Relations System (1918-1920)" in Azerbaijan In Global Politics: Crafting Foreign Policy Azerrbaijan Diplomatic Academy (2009).
      • Shaffer, Brenda Borders and Brethren: Iran and the Challenge of Azerbaijani Identity (BCSIA Studies in International Security) The MIT Press; New Ed edition (2002). Order on Amazon.
    • 2nd Republic 1990 – Present
      • Goltz, Thomas Azerbaijan Diary: A Rogue Reporter's Adventures in an Oil-Rich, War-Torn, Post-Soviet Republic, M.E. Sharpe; New Ed edition (1999). Order on Amazon.
      • De Waal, Thomas Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan Through Peace and War, New York University Press; New Ed edition (2004). Order on Amazon.
      • Croissant, Michael The Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict: Causes and Implications, Praeger Publishers (1998). Order on Amazon.

Reference Material:

  • Collins, Brian C. Historical Dictionary of Azerbaijan, The Scarecrow Press, Inc. (October 6, 1999). Order on Amazon.
  • Brice, William C. Ed. An Historical Atlas of Islam, Leiden, E. J. Brill, 1981.